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How it started

Richard Stallman (RMS) started GNU in 1983, as a project to create a complete free operating system. In the text of the GNU Manifesto, he mentioned that there is a primitive kernel. In the first GNUsletter, Feb. 1986, he says that GNU's kernel is TRIX, which was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

By December of 1986, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) had "started working on the changes needed to TRIX" [Gnusletter, Jan. 1987]. Shortly thereafter, the FSF began "negotiating with Professor Rashid of Carnegie-Mellon University about working with them on the development of the Mach kernel" [Gnusletter, June, 1987]. The text implies that the FSF wanted to use someone else's work, rather than have to fix TRIX.

In [Gnusletter, Feb. 1988], RMS was talking about taking Mach and putting the Berkeley Sprite filesystem on top of it, "after the parts of Berkeley Unix... have been replaced."

Six months later, the FSF is saying that "if we can't get Mach, we'll use TRIX or Berkeley's Sprite." Here, they present Sprite as a full-kernel option, rather than just a filesystem.

In January, 1990, they say "we aren't doing any kernel work. It does not make sense for us to start a kernel project now, when we still hope to use Mach" [Gnusletter, Jan. 1990]. Nothing significant occurs until 1991, when a more detailed plan is announced:

We are still interested in a multi-process kernel running on top of Mach. The CMU lawyers are currently deciding if they can release Mach with distribution conditions that will enable us to distribute it. If they decide to do so, then we will probably start work. CMU has available under the same terms as Mach a single-server partial Unix emulator named Poe; it is rather slow and provides minimal functionality. We would probably begin by extending Poe to provide full functionality. Later we hope to have a modular emulator divided into multiple processes. [Gnusletter, Jan. 1991].

RMS explains the relationship between the Hurd and Linux in The Hurd and Linux, where he mentions that the FSF started developing the Hurd in 1990. As of [Gnusletter, Nov. 1991], the Hurd (running on Mach) is GNU's official kernel.


Release 0.2 announcement (complete GNU system)
Release 0.2 announcement (Hurd)
Test release announcement (Aug 96)
Test release status (Jul 96)
Binary image available, Apr 96
This and NetBSD boot flopies should be enough to get a working GNU/Hurd system!
New Snapshot, Apr 96 -- NFS and lots else works!
News Flash, Nov 95 -- ftp works!
New Snapshot, Jul 95 -- ext2fs support
New Snapshot, Apr 95
News flash, Nov 94
News flash, Sep 94 -- gcc runs!
News flash, Aug 94
News flash, Jul 94 -- emacs runs!
News flash, May 94
News flash, Apr 94 -- it boots!
GNU Hurd announcement, Nov 93
GNU Hurd announcement, May 91

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Updated: $Date: 2005/08/22 09:35:55 $ $Author: ams $